Ucluelet is located at the western edge of Barkley Sound, 288 kilometres northwest of the British Columbia provincial capital, Victoria, on the outer west coast of Vancouver Island. The closest city is Port Alberni approximately 100 km to the east. The District of Tofino is 40 km northwest of Ucluelet on Highway 4. In between Tofino and Ucluelet is the Long Beach unit of the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve. Barkley Sound lies southeast of Ucluelet and is a marine area that features the Broken Islands Group unit of the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve. The fishing and scientific research community of Bamfield lies on its farther shore.
Ucluelet has an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) with mild, rainy winters and cool summers owing to its coastal location. As such, temperatures above 30 °C (86.0 °F) and below −10 °C (14.0 °F) are rare. Precipitation is high, averaging around 3,350 mm (132 in) per year, with most of it concentrated in the winter months. Even so, precipitation is significant in all months with no month averaging below 70 mm (3 in) of precipitation. Although it has an average snowfall of 32.4 cm (12.8 in), the median is 0, meaning over 50% of years do not experience a single snowfall; which makes this climate unique in Canada.